Periodization Training Plan For Triathletes

Training periodization

The use of arranged period changes and sequences in coaching is necessary to create changes to the body and metabolism which will result in better performance.

The first mention of this concept was given by Russian physiologist Leo Matveyev in the 1960s when looking at the performance of Soviet athletes in the 1952 and 1956 summer Olympic Games.

This technique has since been advanced and utilized for objectives related to individual sports to attain the best possible results and develop an athlete’s capability.

In 2001, the International Olympic Committee gave the Olympic Order to Ukrainian professor Vladimir Platonov in recognition of his extensive work to create a general theory of Sports Training Periodization. Matveyev’s research served as the basis for this idea, which then was developed to focus on particular notions. One exemplary approach is to prioritize employing multi-cycle periodization models instead of just adhering to yearly periodization plans that involve a single, two, or three cycles. Platonov’s idea is that when creating a periodization program it should be specific to the sport or athlete, meaning it should be changing and evolving. Making sure to leave ample time during the preparation period is key to achieving optimum performance and preventing injury.

The strength endurance phase helps to build up a higher level of fitness, which can enable someone to take on more intense and demanding training sessions during the following phases, such as muscular development and power.

The periodization phases

1. Focus on deep core muscles and main muscles to increase suppleness and stability to get the body prepared for strength training.

a. Low to moderate set volume 1-3 b. Moderate to high repetitions 12-20+ c. Low to moderate training intensities 50-70% 1RM d. Slow tempo 4/2/1 e. Longer rest periods 0-90 sec f. Low/Moderate training frequency 2-4 times/week g. 1-2 stabilization progressions per muscle group

2. Boost your muscular endurance to be able to handle increased levels of activity during later training sessions.

a. Set the volume to a low to a moderate level between 2 and 4, performing supersets which combine strength and stability exercises. Moderate to high reps 8-12 c. Low to moderate training intensities 50-70% 1RM d. Superset a strength-focused exercise with a stability-focused exercise e. Moderate (2/0/2) and Slow tempo (4/2/1) f. Moderate rest periods 0-60 sec g. Low/Moderate training frequency 2-4 times/week h. 1 strength + 1 stabilization exercise per muscle group

3. Gain greater muscular growth, advance protein synthesis, increase strength, and refine body composition.

a. Moderate/High set volume 3-5 b. Moderate repetitions 6-12 c. Moderate/High training intensities 75-85% 1RM d. Moderate tempo 2/0/2 e. Moderate rest periods 0-60 sec f. Moderate/High training frequency 3-6 times/week g. 2-4 strength exercises per muscle group

4. Maximal Strength

a. High set volume 4-6 b. Lower repetitions 1-5 c. Moderate/High training intensities 85-100% 1RM d. Explosive tempo e. Longer rest periods 3-5 min f. Moderate training frequency 2-4 times/week g. 1-3 strength exercises per muscle group (typically compound movements)

5. Gaining strength and power output through the recruitment of the highest number of muscle fibres.

a. Moderate set volume 3-5 b. Lower repetitions 1-5 (str) + 8-10 (pwr) c. Training intensities should range from a low of 85-100% of an individual’s one-repetition maximum (also known as strength training) to a high of 30-35% of their one-repetition maximum (or power training) or 10% of their body weight. Superset Explosive tempo (str) x plyo tempo (pwr) e. Take a rest of one to two minutes between each pairing and three to five minutes between each circuit. Moderate training frequency 2-4 times/week g. 1 strength exercise per muscle group x 1 power

Types of cycles used for periodization

Cycles are a fundamental component of the organizing practice employed in devising cycle-based training techniques.

1. Macrocycle a. Macrocycles describe the major cycles employed to arrange a period, such as months-long or year-long intervals, to organize periodization.

2. Mesocycle a. Mesocycles are shorter timeframes that are divided up from the longer macrocycle into specific periods lasting a few weeks to several months.

3. Microcycle a. The microcycle is the smallest unit of a training cycle and specifically concentrates on minute differences in daily or weekly intervals.

You know how to swim, bike, and run, but do you know how to train

It is incredibly simple for athletes to become enveloped in an exercise routine that does not have any structure or guidance. Excited novices may end up increasing their training or trying too hard during the initial period of their passion for participating in a triathlon.

Experienced individuals who have already done the same thing before may have too much faith in their own abilities to assist themselves, or maybe rely on plans that do not suit their present situation. Some triathletes make training choices based on counsel obtained online, regardless of whether or not it is trustworthy information or fake science.

When we go off course, schooling can usually take three unproductive paths: putting in more frequency and strength, staying at a soothing level, or pushing hard and then having major dips.

It doesn’t matter how passionate we are about the exercise, there is a correct way to approach it or else we could suffer from physical and psychological exhaustion.

Tamara Kozulina, an ex-triathlete and current coach who holds a Bachelor’s degree from the University of Science and Physical Culture in Ukraine, emphasizes that exercising without an established plan (or straying from the plan) is just like trying to make a complicated dish without the instructions.

We may have the correct components, however, if we put them together in a bad way, the result will be disastrous.

Kozulina suggested making a blueprint with micro, meso, and macrocycles over 365 days to keep athletes progressing. Periodization is the idea which helps make sure that you are progressing towards reaching your triathlon objectives.

Training Micro cycles

Completing a weekly routine, or micro cycle, that consists of days of absolute rest is absolutely essential to ensure the success of a larger cycle of periodization. Kozulina suggests that athletes should make the most of their days to ensure both physical and mental well-being; one way to do so is by getting a massage, spending time with relatives, and even taking a break with a good read.

Ballmer proposes setting aside at least one day of rest for every week-long period. The coaches encourage avoiding extra exercise on days off or pretending that leisure activities such as hiking, vigorous yoga classes, or even strenuous gardening and home-improvement tasks are workouts.

The right plan = a healthier you

Most athletes recognize that taking a break from physical activity as part of their training plan has advantages, however, research now indicates that psychological rest is what keeps athletes committed, and interested, and improves their achievement in the long run.

When athletes have the opportunity to change their routine and take some time away from practice, they can prevent boredom and attrition that studies suggest can often come from regular endurance training that is missing proper rest.

The conclusion is improved physical and mental well-being, a long-lasting connection to the triathlon, and plenty of energy to partake in activities outside of the triathlon.

Ballmer remarked that there are hints to watch for indicating that an athlete’s training program could have spiralled out of control and they are at risk of burning out.

Signs of poor physical health may be indicated by a higher resting heart rate or a lower working heart rate, trouble sleeping, or feeling cranky during the day.

She encourages athletes to pay attention to their emotions, how much they are sleeping, and even heart rate figures to identify troubles early on, when a bit of extra rest can bring about a large impact.

If you don’t have the luxury of bringing in an established triathlon trainer to help you form an agenda, do not permit that to prevent you from deliberately implementing some of the most outstanding practices of cyclical preparation.

You can be open and truthful about both your good and bad training practices, and work to make improvements.

The point of periodization

The plan will only be successful if there is a clear, defined objective that needs to be attained. Every athlete, regardless of skill level, should inquire of themselves, “What is the purpose behind my participating in this sport? What are my short-term and long-term goals? How can I achieve them?’” said Kozulina.

She constructs regimens for her sportspeople only upon retrieving this data, making sure to incorporate stages of creating a foundation, the highest point, contests, and time to recuperate.

Investigations have demonstrated that this system of organizing fitness schedules yields great results in managing several components involved in exercising, including physical advancement, rest, diet, mental well-being, and even the process of gaining proficiency.

It is beneficial to athletes to create a training schedule which varies in both the amount of exercise and strength to allow for optimum performance without being overly strenuous.

In addition, alternating between exercises that focus on speed, honing of skills, and muscle building, coupled with complete days of rest, helps keep athletes in peak psychological condition and enthusiasm levels high.

Training phase longevity

The length of time a person spends in training varies based on their progress and objectives. Mechanisms like progressive overloading enable people to stay in one particular stage (e.g. bodybuilding Muscle Development) for a prolonged period without having to worry about stagnating.

The most essential step is the preliminary period (that is, developing stamina) to effectively prepare the customer for the anticipated requirements and higher exercise levels later on. This period is ever-changing and should be decided by the customer and target. To ensure progress and sidestep a potential plateau, intense and wide-ranging variations in the training regime must be implemented.

Without a different level of effort being required, the muscles and nerves will become accustomed to the current workout routine over time and a good suggestion for the majority of general fitness customers is to alter their program every 4-6 weeks, or whenever a stagnation in progress is observed in the client.

Nevertheless, it is quite common for the phases to switch approximately every one to six weeks. The same phase of training can be improved through the SAID (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands) principle and by progressively increasing the intensity of the workouts.

The difference between linear periodization and undulating periodization

Linear periodization involves gradually increasing certain elements of a workout or week after week while undulating periodization employs varying those variables to impose a more varied requirement with the desired outcome in mind. One illustration of linear periodization is increasing the intensity (weight) of a specific workout each training session until the 4- or 8-week period has been finished.

An illustration of undulating periodization might be to do a practice characterized by a lot of activities with low intensity than the subsequent week including exercises with lower quantity yet higher intensity.

By changing up the routine, the muscles can be challenged in new and different ways and the client can be kept motivated to work hard.

A Powerlifting meet could be the ideal target for an 8-week training schedule that uses linear periodization. Participating in bodybuilding or other athletic events could be used as an opportunity to take advantage of undulating periodization.

Importance of periodization

Without dividing up the training program into sections, the customer/athlete may not be able to maximize their performance. Progressively, physio-chemical changes take place which cause the body to become stronger and more viable to partake in exercises involving a higher level of intensity and load.

These methods can be employed in many ways to craft a more tailored and specialized plan to accomplish client targets.

Ballmer’s Rules to Avoid Burnout

1. The 10 Percent Rule

Do not increase the hours/mileage for the run by more than 10%. It is usually the same for novice swimmers and cyclists. Ballmer expressed his preference for being cautious to stay away from any form of harm.

2. The Intensity Rule

The number of intense running exercises (like track workouts) should only take up 5-10% of the total training time for athletes with experience.

The importance of measuring heart rate, breathing rate, shifts in mood, and sleep as part of physical activity cannot be overstated as it helps to ensure the well-being of athletes even when engaging in intense exercise. Exerting oneself too hard may lead to excessive stress and exhaustion, so these indicators help to maintain optimal health.

3. The Skill and Technique Rule

It’s particularly crucial to take special care when swimming but also when changing activities from swimming to cycling and then from cycling to running. Incorporating skills and techniques into the training regimen should take place throughout the whole year.

4. The Food Rule

It is necessary to incorporate education about appropriate nutrition for pre-training, during, and post-workout periods into any periodized program for athletes. Ballmer advised that people should consult a sports dietician to get information about how to fuel their bodies properly.


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